Monday, May 25, 2020

Othello, By William Shakespeare - 1358 Words

Iago is a ‘Machiavellian villain’, someone who is intent on realizing his desires at all costs and seeks to achieve this in a deceptive manner. To achieve his goals, he utilizes characters around him to carry out his plans without them realizing. His main purpose in Othello is to entrap and deceive the hero. In this scene we discover Iago’s hate towards Othello and his motives to ruin him; one of them being Othello’s recent promotion of Michael Cassio to the post of lieutenant. In spite of Iago’s service in battle and the recommendation from the ‘three great ones of the city’, Othello chose to give the position to a ‘Florentine’ that ‘never set a squadron in the field’. Iago only follows Othello to ‘serve my turn upon him’. Iago is shown to be looking out for his own self-interest whilst pretending to serve Othello. Thus revealing his capacity to hide his feelings and motives so that his actions don t reveal them. The opening scene establishes ‘honest’ Iago as a character who possesses a Janus face which simultaneously makes him the most faithful of friends and the most deadly of enemies. His poisonous cleverness allows him to manipulate those around him by exploiting their finer qualities, which he holds in contempt. He is a real villain whose dramatic persona of manifest hypocrisy draws the audience towards him even as he repels them. His manipulation of the situation between Roderigo and Brabantio demonstrates his Machiavellian ability to practice deceit; taking factsShow MoreRelatedOthello, By William Shakespeare957 Words   |  4 Pagesinnocent person kills himself while not knowing the truth. The best example of that would be the play Othello by the great William Shakespeare. As little as a handkerchief could make a difference if it is a symbol for something. In the play Othello by Shakespeare, handkerchief is first introduced by Othello to his beautiful mistress, Desdemona, as a sign of their love. At the end of the play what gets Othello to take extreme measures by the location of the handkerchief. As the symbol of the handkerchiefRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1599 Words   |  7 Pages William Shakespeare’s 16th century play Othello is a duplicitous and fraudulent tale set alternatingly between Venice in act 1, and the island of Cyprus thereafter. The play follows the scandalous marriage between protagonist Othello, a Christian moore and the general of the army of Venice, and Desdemona, a respected and intelligent woman who also happens to be the daughter of the Venetian Senator Brabantio. Shakespeare undoubtedly positions the marriage to be viewed as heroic and noble, despiteRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1218 Words   |  5 PagesIn a historical time period where emphasis was shifting from religion to race and ethnicity, key indicators of differences that perpetuated into racial prejudice and racial ideologies are evident in Othello by William Shakespeare. Although racism was not fully formed at this moment in history, Othello can be interpreted as a representation and an exploration of this shift in ideology. In the past, before this change to ward racial differences, religion was the major segretory factor in signifyingRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare894 Words   |  4 Pagesthose that which occurred in Othello written by William Shakespeare. Throughout the play Othello, we see the struggles of a marriage that is not accepted by their society. Othello is a extremely cherished black general living in a primarily white community. The play begins with Othello secretly becoming married to a white woman named Desdemona. This reasons others who are white to become angry and excuse to dislike this black man further more than they already do. Othello is a downward spiral from loveRead MoreOthello by William Shakespeare790 Words   |  3 PagesThroughout Othello by William Shakespeare, Othello makes numerous poor decisions due to his jealousy. Hitting Desdemona, trusting Iago, and killing Desdemona are among a few of the poor decisions that he makes. The word jealous can be defined as feeling or showing suspicion of som eones unfaithfulness in a relationship. Othello feels suspicious of Desdemona’s and Cassio’s relationship because of the lies that Iago tells him. Many people try to tell Othello the truth but he only believes the wordsRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1923 Words   |  8 Pagesdissatisfaction or complication is shown. Firstly in Othello love is presented as ephemeral and transient while atonement love is presented as unrequited and finally in cat on a hot tin roof love is presented as painful and troublesome due to unreciprocated feelings. The tragic plot of Othello hinges on the potential of the villain, Iago, to deceive other characters, above all Roderigo and Othello, through encouraging them to misinterpret what they see. Othello is prone to Iago s ploys seeing that he himselfRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare941 Words   |  4 Pageswas Williams Shakespeare’s play Othello which depicts the tragedy of Othello, a Morris Captain. What is different about Shakespeare play is that the tragic hero is the black Othello and the villain a white Iago. Therefore, Shakespeare depiction of Othello as a tragic character and Iago as a villain, challenges Elizabethan’s stereotypes regarding individuals of African descent. Shakespeare challenges the stereotypical â€Å"type –casting of the black man† in Elizabethan society by depicting Othello asRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1152 Words   |  5 Pages‘Othello’ was a tragedy of incomprehension at the deepest level of human dealings as no one in the play came to an understanding of himself or any of the surrounding characters. The play ‘Othello’ by William Shakespeare focused on tragedy through the anguish of the main character ‘Othello’ which lead to the suffering and death of numerous characters including himself. Appearance Vs. Reality challenged human dealings within the play ‘Othello’ as no-one came to see anyone’s true self and no-one seesRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1178 Words   |  5 Pagesprofitable in condition of good and immorality. Othello is presented as good and Iago as evil, but Iago and Othello’s relationship also shares a distrust of their wives. The overall logical argument is based on love, jealousy and betrayal between two lovers that ultimately leads to their separation because of Iago’s evil plan. I am using this article to agree with Berry s view on how Iago separates two lovers just so he can take retaliation on Othello by manipulating everyone to unmasking their trueRead MoreOthello, By William Shakespeare1140 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"Othello† is a play written by William Shakespeare in 1603. In this play, Shakespeare features three major characters: Othello, Iago, and Desdemona. Othello, a black man, and Desdemona, a white venetian secretly eloped in the play. Iago shows racism and prejudice towards their relationship because of their skin colors. In the play, Iago says: â€Å"Even now, now, very now, an old black ram is tupping your white ewe. Arise, arise! Awake the snorting citizens with the bell, or else the devil will make a

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Should the Legal Drinking Age Be Lowered Essay - 1233 Words

â€Å"I must entreat you to be scrupulous in the use of strong liquors. One night’s drunkenness may defeat the labours of forty days well employed.† James Boswell once wrote. College students consuming alcohol has become a persistent problem in America. As we all know, alcohol is a product that has provided a variety of functions for people in the world, especially in twenty first century, it is widely used in socializing, chemically, and medicinally. Although drinking alcohol can benefit peoples in enhancing the enjoyment and quality of life, but massive of consumption could lead to addictions which may cause the negative impact in our life, such as small issues like having headache the next day, losing your job, or more serious of†¦show more content†¦Drinking at college has become a ritual that students often see as part of their higher education experience. Many college students came to school with established drinking habits, and the environment in colleg e can exacerbate the problem. According to a research, it shows that more than eighty percent of college students drink alcohol, and half reported had binge drinking at least five times a month. The consequences of abusive drinking in college will affects students in their families, relationship, college communities at large and making healthy choices. Students that are under the legal drinking age has found many ways to get access to alcohols, such as having a friend who is twenty one years or older to purchase for them, or getting it from home. They usually drink less often than adults, but when they do drink they tends to drink more than adults, which can lead to a serious problem and side effect in health that results in affecting their hormonal balance, normal development of organs, muscles and bones. It could also lead to serious damage in our body, such as brain damage. Since the brains of young drinkers are still developing, alcohol consumption has an effect on intellectual performance and the results in brain damage and effect can be permanent. Alcohol abuses in adolescent can lead to liver damage, they often have an increased number of liver enzymes which supports claims that alcohol contributes to a long term damage in theShow MoreRelatedThe Legal Drinking Age Should Not Be Lowered973 Words   |  4 Pages The Legal Age for Drinking Alcohol Should Not Be Lowered To 18 In the United States. Every state has the right to set its own legal drinking age. However, according to George Will in an article he wrote in the Washington Post about the legal drinking age, â€Å"drinking age paradox† â€Å"lowering the drinking age will cost the state ten percent of its federal highway funds and cause a significant uproar from contractors and construction unions.† It is therefore in the best interest of every citizenRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Be Lowered1732 Words   |  7 PagesThe definition of the word adult is: â€Å"a person who has attained the age of maturity as specified by law†(Dictionary.com). If this is so, then why is it that in the United States 18 year olds are legally considered adults in our society, but they can’t legally buy or consume alcohol? Yet at this age they are able to vote in an election, get married, serve on a jury, live on their own, purchase cigarettes, adopt a child, and defend our country. These are not easy tasks for one to take on, yet our governmentRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Be Lowered955 Words   |  4 PagesIn the United States of America, the National Government requires the states to enforce a legal drinking age of twenty-one. Where as the world average drinking age is eighteen, and in some Countries it is even lower where it is possible to get a beer at sixteen years of age. Taking that into consideration, there is a great deal of controversy in the United States on what the legal age should be to purchase and consume an alcoholic beverage. The largest issue being that you are considered to be anRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Be Lowered1170 Words   |  5 PagesFor a majority of the 20th century, the United States drinking age has been a big issue. After prohibition had concluded in 1933, twenty- one was the new legal drinking age. Meanwhile, during the Vietnam War, eighteen became the new legal drinking age. Finally in 1984, Congress pa ssed the National Minimum Drinking Age Act (MLDA). Since then, twenty-one years old has been the legal age to drink in the United States. There are several ways alcohol has been a reason for death such as, alcohol poisoningRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Be Lowered1553 Words   |  7 Pagesold male who lives in Oregon. To celebrate his 18th birthday, he decided to go out with some friends and have a few drinks. He knows that the legal drinking age is 21, but he thinks what is the harm? I am 18 and in other countries, you are allowed to drink before you turn 21. Later that night as John gets in the car with his friends after a few hours of drinking, everything seems to be going well as they are driving down the freeway on their way over to his friend Dan’s house that is just a few milesRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Not Be Lowered988 Words   |  4 PagesThe Legal Drinking Age Should Not Be Lowered There are copious amounts of people who believe that the legal drinking age should be lowered to eighteen. Others think the drinking age needs to remain the same. A few of those also conclude the legal age of adulthood should be raised to 21. The belief is if the adolescent brain has not matured enough to support alcohol use by age 21, it cannot make the responsible decisions required at 18 years of age. Voters should make the decision toRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Not Be Lowered1117 Words   |  5 Pagesto the legal age of alcohol consumption have been going on for many years. While some feel that 21 should remain as the legal minimum consumption age, others disagree. By examining different aspects of alcohol consumption such as social motives and health related concerns one is more able to fully grasp the role that alcohol plays in our society. Through research and analyzation one can come to the conclusion that a lowered legal drinking age is not the answe r. The legal drinking age should not beRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Be Lowered Essay1548 Words   |  7 PagesIn the United States, the legal drinking age is twenty-one. In all fifty states, however, there are exceptions for underaged drinking at home, under adult supervision, or for medical purposes (â€Å"Drinking Age†). Overall, the legal opportunities for any person under twenty-one to legally drink alcohol are very scarce. There are many different points, made by people from both sides of the issue about whether or not to lower the drinking age to eighteen, or leave it where it currently stands at twenty-oneRead MoreThe Legal Drinking Age Should Be Lowered1481 Words   |  6 Pagesthe century, underage drinking happens every day in the United States and for some this might seem unacceptable but for most this is all because an unfair law put up by the government. The legal drinking age should be lowered from 21 to 18 because, among other things; 18 is the age of adulthood in America and adults should have the right to make their own decisions, also traffic accidents and fatalities are most common among newly-legal drinkers regardless of their drinking age; and, this law has notRead MoreLegal Drinking Age Should Be Lowered2099 Words   |  9 Pages friends, and the feeling of being invincible. Although there are a legal alcohol drinking and purchasing age in various countries, it is easily accessible to those who are underage. Alcohol is a monitored and controlled substance that can be purchased legally, yet there are many concerns that surround the substance. There are pros, cons, and different patterns regarding alcohol and the legal alcohol drinking and purchasing age. As a result of alcohol use, there have been many fatalities and injuries

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Role of Christian Youth - 1759 Words

The Role of Christian Youth in Nation Building National Identity The notion of nation-building presupposes that the nation itself is in need of building; or rebuilding, in some cases. The term nation-building in its original sense referred to newly-independent nations in Africa to reshape colonial territories that had been carved out by colonial powers without regard to ethnic or other boundaries. This would later include the creation of paraphernalia such as flags, national anthems, national days, national languages and so on. At the heart of this lay the deep-rooted need to search for a national identity. For many Asian countries bar a few, this was certainly the case. Countries like Malaysia and Singapore (then Malaya),†¦show more content†¦However, one should brace for disagreements as to how these values should be in praxis terms, and open dialogue should be encouraged in resolving these differences. Aside from what we can explore based on the Scripture, there are funda mental principles that we can refer to when exploring the need for social justice. The Catholic Church has been working at issues of social justice for many years, the Jesuit order specifically tasked with this very responsibility and role. In 1963, Pope John the 23rd issued one of the most famous encyclicals called Pacem In Terris, or in English, â€Å"On Establishing Universal Peace in Truth, Justice, Charity, and Liberty†. This document clearly sets the basis upon which justice is grounded, laying the premises that God created all men equal, and as such he has rights and duties that are universal, inviolable and inalienable. Therefore, man has economic, political, cultural, and moral rights and duties. In detail, â€Å"man has the right to live, to bodily integrity, to the means necessary for development of life, to be respected, to worship God according to one’s conscience, to choose freely one’s state in life, (and) to freely meet and associate.† (si c) It further states, â€Å"All men are equal in natural dignity, and †¦ no form of approval is being given to racial discrimination†¦ and the possession of rights involves recognition and respect by other people†. Many of such statements ring similar to those containedShow MoreRelatedChristian Religious Education : A Book Based Out1593 Words   |  7 PagesThrough reading Christian Religious Education I discovered many things, some of them are simple easy things while others have a bigger impact. First of all, I recommend not trying to read this book all in one sitting, it is too deep and intense to read that way. However, if you read the book based out, as recommended by Leslie Long then the book was fine. Yet, whichever way you read the book the same general message will get across. That message is one that education is important, in ChristianityRead MoreMargaret Sanger s The Argument For Teenage Mothers And Abstinent Couples1505 Words   |  7 PagesMarga ret Sanger’s main argument in her publication, â€Å"Margaret Sanger Seeks Pity for Teenage Mothers and Abstinent Couples,† is that the woman’s inability to be decisive in whether or not she will assume the role of motherhood is symbolic of slavery. Furthermore, Sanger maintains that denying women the freedom of choice essentially impedes their constitutional rights to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. These assertions are substantiated through a series of letters that are written toRead MoreThe Good Shepherd And The Bebenburg Youth1620 Words   |  7 PagesBoth The Good Shepherd and The Bebenburg Youth are quite small then what they appear on generic white backgrounds. Only about two feet each and almost a thousand years in-between them, they have many concepts in common to their creation, build, and context with some differences in each category. Marble is what the statues are made of, as the hard material was in relative abundance in the Mediterranean area even in ancient times. Bits of paints on the Youth are still present as this would be completelyRead More Generation-X Essay1365 Words   |  6 Pagesgeneration of youth that have given into the pressures of the world. I would like you to think of the X as the Greek symbol for â€Å"Chi† which is used as a symbol for Christ. In this decade the youth involved in the Christianity has grown significantly. Youth are responding to the church in ways that the past generation did not. Where mom and dad embraced the tumultuous sixties their children have taken hold of Christianity. The youth organizations that promote the Protestant doctrine have seen the youth membershipRead MoreEverybody Is Born To Be A Leader, But Special Qualities1310 Words   |  6 PagesEverybody is born to be a leader, but special qualities and training are needed to become a Christian leader. Se veral decades ago, researchers started trying to answer the question which has been lingering for centuries on whether Leaders are born or made; the debate goes on and on. I never thought of myself to be a Christian leader. As a matter of fact, I am the person who attended church, but fades into the sea of many faces that makes up the congregation. I was at the center of my life, and thereRead MoreEssay about A Lifelong Calling into the Orthodox Christian Church1011 Words   |  5 PagesThe Orthodox Christian Church holds true to the teachings of Christ as given by Him to His apostles. The Orthodox Christian Church is universal and Orthodox Christians have a faith and doctrine of Jesus Christ Our Lord as Head of the Church. To date, the Orthodox Church teachings promote the central role of youth and children in the mission of the church. Being an Orthodox Christian is a lifelong calling to whoever is baptized and chrismated in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy SpiritRead MoreThe Franklin Road Church Youth Groups Are More Than Just a Religion1681 Words   |  7 PagesThe Franklin Road Church of Christ youth group consists of youth of all ages. The group is divided into three subgroups: Tots for Christ (TFC), Kids for Christ (KFC), and the Senior Youth Group (SYG). In particular, for this essay I will be explaining how the Senior Youth Group is a discourse community. Franklin Road’s SYG consists of the ages 11-18. Within the group we do various things such as going to youth retreats, youth conferences, and many more; just to name a few. The group has been aroundRead MoreThe Philosophy of Bryant Myer1382 Words   |  5 Pageslife and it is not enjoyable (114). Poverty is the absence of shalom in all its meanings. It is not only a representation of the poor but also of the non-poor as in God’s sight all human beings are poor. The non-poor’s problem is that they play God’s role in the life of the poor as they selfishly use their gifts for the good of themselves and their well-beings and not being stewards and working for the well-being of their community. This leads them to lose sight of their true identity and they are seenRead MoreEvaluation Of A Good Will Church1066 Words   |  5 Pagesconfirmative evaluation is implement skills and standards in the Christian Education ministry. In the Christian Education program, the teachers are not properly trained to study Scripture and evaluate lessons based on pre-develop curriculum, and to prepare their own lesson plans. The adult teachers are volunteers only and they are intrinsic motivated to show their creativity and being enthusing in teaching of the bible among the youth and adults. The organization focus is to evaluate the SpiritualRead MoreImportance Of Christian Ecumenical Movements And Interfaith Dialogue1573 Words   |  7 Pages The importance of Christian ecumenical movements and interfaith dialogue in Australia post World War II is of great significance to the broader Australian society. It plays a great role in uniting and celebrating the differences and recognising the similarities of the religions, as well as appreciating the uniqueness of the various religions. Ecumenism and interfaith dialogue have been an important feature due to a range of reasons including the abolishment of the White Australia Policy, the arrival

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Ikea Paper free essay sample

The company is known for its modern architectural designs on various types of appliances and furniture, often associated with a simplified eco-friendly interior design. In addition, the firm is known for the attention it gives to cost control, operational details and continuous product development, allowing it to lower its prices by an average of two to three percent over the decade to 2010, while continuing its global expansion. As of October 2011, IKEA has 332 stores in 38 countries. Most of these stores are directly owned but some are managed under franchise by owners outside the company. By doing this, IKEA faces a higher chance of success than in a sole proprietorship. In fiscal year 2010, it sold $23. 1 billion worth of goods, a 7. 7 percent increase over 2009. In recent years, IKEA purchases from developing countries have grown from 32% in 1998 to 48% in 2003; 29% of its output comes from Asia, 67% from Europe and 4% from the USA (Arrigo, 2005). For a long time, Poland was the second supplier of raw materials after Sweden, but there was recently a giddy increase in China which, in 2004, accounted for 14% of total output, followed by Poland with 12%, Sweden with 8%, Italy with 7%, and Germany with 6% (IKEA. com). To achieve its goal of boosting efficiency while cutting costs and prices to the end consumer, IKEA is constantly looking for convenient new locations. This paper will focus on strategic investments decisions with regard to innovation and advertising and strategic product feature decisions. IKEA Supply IKEAs vision is â€Å"To create a better everyday life for the many people. † To meet its vision IKEA provides many well-designed, functional products for the home. It prices its products low so that as many people as possible can afford to buy them. However, in creating low prices IKEA is not willing to sacrifice its principles. Low price but not at any price† is what IKEA says. This means it wants its business to be sustainable. IKEA supplies goods and services to individuals in a way that has an overall beneficial effect on people and the environment. Customers all over the world have responded positively to IKEAs approach. This is evident in its increasing sales. Supp ly chain IKEA has an extremely efficient supply chain and its management was the key source in IKEA in cost management which gave it a cutting edge among its competitors as it products where charged 30% lower than the cost of its rivals. With regard to the supply chain, the flow of production and processes go through three industrial sectors before the end product reaches the customer. Firstly, it starts with the primary sector concerning raw materials. Natural resources such as timber are extracted and developed. IKEA buys products from more than 1,300 suppliers in 50 countries (The Times 100). It uses a number of trading service offices across the world. They negotiate prices with suppliers, check the quality of materials and analyze the environmental impacts that occur through the supply chain. IKEA aims that all the products and materials it takes from the primary sector do not harm the environment. They also keep an eye on social and working conditions at suppliers. The second step is manufacturing where primary materials are used to build, manufactured and developed to finished goods. A key part of IKEAs success is due to its communications with materials suppliers and manufacturers. During manufacturing IKEA specifies to its producers that waste should be avoided. Where waste does occur the firm encourages suppliers to try to use it in the manufacture of other products. IKEA has a code of conduct called the IKEA Way of Purchasing Home Furnishing Products, the IWAY (The Times 100). This contains minimum rules and guidelines that help manufacturers to reduce the impact of their activities on the environment. IKEA aims that all there products are manufactured in a responsible way. The tertiary sector provides services needed to meet the needs of the end users such as retailing, distribution, insurance, and customer services. IKEAs retail stores add value to manufactured goods by providing a form of shopping different to the usual high-street experience. They meet the needs of the consumers in a number of different ways. Each IKEA store is large and holds more than 9,500 products giving lots of choice. Within each store, there are a number of realistic room settings that enable customers to see what the products would look like in their own homes. In addition, the IKEA store is built on a concept of â€Å"you do half, we do half; together we save money†. This refers to, for example, the customer assembling furniture at home. Customers handpick products themselves using trolleys. Also, IKEA provides catalogues and home delivery to save customers’ time. IKEA stores also have restaurants that provide Swedish dishes alongside local food choices. IKEA Competition To define the relevant market, IKEA operates in a perfectly competitive market. IKEA is a furniture store and there are many other furniture stores owned by various different entities (so there are many suppliers in this market). Normally the firms in a perfectly competitive market would be price takers. However, IKEA has a lot of market power as it is able to raise its prices above the perfectly competitive level without losing many consumers. Therefore it can be stated that IKEA is a price setter. There are off course competitors, however it seems that IKEA does not really take competitor’s decisions into account as they are not really relevant to their own decisions. IKEA sets its prices very low because they face low production costs as a result of strong relationships with its suppliers. Competitors are predictable but even if they were unpredictable, IKEA would not be affected by their decisions as the firm is already at the bottom end of the market. IKEA makes use of their concept in a global strategy that designed furniture for a lower price than other competitors offer that can be sold everywhere for the targeted market segment. Sometimes regional differences appear that arise form national habits, lifestyles and culture. What gives IKEA a huge advantage in selling its products at a lower price springs from their â€Å"young† concept is that the customers have to bring home the products and assemble it themselves. No other firm manufactures as much furniture as IKEA. The firm can and will eliminate any local competition by using their global position. It is a fact that they have no competitors on the global market. IKEA’s success was recognized to its vast experience in the furniture retail market, its product differentiation and cost leadership. Across markets where it presently has a presence, products are sold at prices that are 30 to 50 percent lower than competing products. This penetration pricing enables IKEA to gain significant market share. Low prices are a result of large-quantity purchasing, low-cost logistics, and store location in housing areas. In addition, IKEA also benefits from economies of scale and healthy supplier-firm relationships. IKEA enters into long-term contracts, provides leased equipment and technical support in exchange for exclusive, low-cost manufacturing from suppliers. For new markets, IKEA should retain its price-image to maintain the brand’s positioning. IKEA strives for cost leadership, and for this reason it negotiates the most cheap conditions with a very large number of suppliers, a large part of whom live in eastern Europe and Asia, where the cost of raw materials, manpower and warehouse rentals is lower than elsewhere. IKEA always tries to acquire raw materials at the best price, choosing the suppliers with the cheapest price but it is equally focused on maintaining good relationships with them to avoid late deliveries or poor workmanship. IKEA’s low cost policy is based on several factors. Firstly, and previously already mentioned, it is based on economies of scale where large volumes reduce the unit cost of production. Secondly, the low cost policy is based on economies of transport where large orders of products permit to IKEA to transfer transport costs to suppliers. Low running costs inside the stores is also a factor. For example, the group uses buildings that are easy to build and inexpensive to manage, and it also has a ‘dressdown policy’, with all employees wearing the same uniforms, which are very simple and ractical. A last factor with regard to low cost policy is the purchases of unassembled products from suppliers with a consequent reduction of costs (taxes are lower for components than for finished products). IKEA Demand With regard to the number of buyers, this market faces a great number of buyers as IKEA wishes to reach everyone who needs a new piece of furniture or accessory. IKEA provides its products to end consumers as it only supplies their final products. These consumers can be households, other companies, or governments for example. On the demand side, the active participation of its customers, who are seen as genuine partners, is a source of economic saving for IKEA. Most of its products are packed in flat packs and the customer has to take them home and assemble them, paying the cost of transport and assembly, and thus reducing storage costs for IKEA. Wherever consumers go to IKEA stores, products are always the same. Consumers therefore know what they can expect and for what price. This is a very strong characteristic of IKEA because familiarity with a brand makes consumers come back. The 9,500 products that IKEA supplies is available in all IKEA stores and customers can order much of the range online through IKEA’s website. By doing this, IKEA makes products easier accessible, reducing the distance a consumers has to travel when choosing to purchase IKEA products, and bundles its good together with home deliveries of the orders. An IKEA market strategy in terms of service providence to their customers is always a unique one. The stores and services of IKEA are very much different from the other furniture vendors. The stores are very much spacious and divided into cheerful model rooms. This provides wide range of services to its customers to choose the furniture according to the measurements of their house along with the prices and variety of designs that are showed in kiosks. In addition, IKEA also provides childcare centers and include restaurants and cafes serving typical Swedish food. They also have small food shops selling Swedish groceries, everything from the famous meatballs to jam. Stores are located worldwide. It welcomed a total of 565 million visitors to the stores during the year 2008 and a further 450 million visits were made to the IKEA website. Low prices are one of the cornerstones of the IKEA concept and help to make customers want to buy from IKEA. IKEAs products cater for every lifestyle and life stage of its customers, who come from all age groups and types of households. This is vital in times when the retail sector is depressed, as it increases IKEAs potential market. The wide range of products that IKEA offers are of most value for consumers. Consumers prefer to have a lot of choice for good quality and low prices. IKEA’s product based market strategy drew many customers to their store and kept it the top position in the global market of the furniture companies. As previously mentioned, IKEA issued variant catalogs of their products in different native languages so as to reach all sections of their customers. IKEA also adopted some of the experimental marketing strategies for the publicity of their products. In earlier years it has taken decision to decorate a chain hotel with their furniture that has become a beneficial market strategy for both the parties. Its main aim is to target the customers of that hotel and market their products. Even the chain hotel gets benefit to decorate their hotels with lavishing furniture at low cost. Furthermore, the most important strategy of IKEA is not providing the exit for the customers who had entered in to their stores without having seen all the furniture in store. In this phenomenon there is scope that the customers may go for the more furniture that is not actually needed (Kotelnikov, 2005). Since it was founded IKEA has always had concern for people and the environment. The IKEA vision â€Å"to create a better everyday life for the many people† puts this concern at the heart of the business. IKEA has responded to the publics rising concern for sustainability in its choice of product range, suppliers, stores and communication. It has also spotted business potential in providing sustainable solutions. IKEAs concern for people and the environment encourages it to make better use of both raw materials and energy. This keeps costs down and helps the company to reach its green targets and have an overall positive impact on the environment. IKEA aims to be a responsible organization and believes that a strong environmental stance is good business practice, as it also has shown as the current trend of more â€Å"green† and environmental friendly preferences of consumers when choosing their products. Demand Supply Function Demand Function There are a couple of variables that are relevant to the quantity (Qd) of IKEA goods and services that consumers are willing and able to purchase, in other words demand. First of all the price of the goods (P) IKEA sets affects the demand. Next to P, prices of related goods and services (PR) are also important as those are goods from which inputs are derived to be used in the production of the primary good. The prices of related goods and services are therefore taken into account when IKEA sets its price (P). The expected future price of products (Pe) might also influence demand because if a consumer believes that the price of the good will be higher in the future, he or she is more likely to purchase the good now. In addition, prices of all other companies’ products (P1†¦Pn-1) have an influence on the demand function of IKEA. If their prices are much lower than IKEA prices, consumers will buy from other firms. However, as already mentioned, this is not the case for IKEA as they offer products for low prices. Also, if the consumer expects that his income will be higher in the future, the consumer may buy the good now. Therefore, expected future income (Ye) also affects demand. Thirdly, the incomes of consumers (Y) are also relevant to demand because this influences the ability to purchase the IKEA goods. Demand is also affected by the number of consumers in the market (N), the more consumers in the market, the higher the demand for the IKEA products. Moreover, advertising expenditure (A) affects demand as well. The more advertising, the more consumers are informed or persuaded to come and buy at IKEA. IKEA shows to be very efficient at this with providing their catalogs. Lastly, consumer tastes and preferences (T) also affect demand. It seems that consumers prefer IKEA products over other products because of its low prices and quality of the products. However, consumers incur transportation costs (t) that have an effect on preferring to buy from IKEA (which is often located just outside the city center) or to buy from a shop closer to their homes. Consumers know that IKEA provides very high quality products no matter in which shop they will buy the products and consumers could therefore prefer IKEA products over other. The general demand function for IKEA would therefore be: Qd = f (P, PR, Pe, Y, Ye, N, A, T(t)) or, Qd = a + bP + cPR + dPe + e(P1†¦Pn-1) + fM + gYe + hN + iA + jT(t) Where b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, and j are slope parameters that measure the effect on Qd of changing one of the variables while holding the others constant. We assume that, all in the short run, there is no change in taste and preference, that the income of the consumer is constant, that there is no change in customs, habit and quality of goods, no change in substitute products, related products and the price of the product, and finally, that there are no complementary goods. Supply Function There are a couple of factors that affect supply, the amount of products IKEA is willing and able to sell at a given price all other factors being held constant. Firstly, the price of IKEA’s products (P) influences the supply function. Ikea can be seen as a leader in this market and therefore it might be the case that the firm cuts its price, possibly as an attempt to keep the number of entrants low. Secondly, the price of related goods (PR) influences the supply function. If the PR increases, the cost of production will increase and therefore supply would decrease. Thirdly, technology (T) with regard to production affects supply in a way that whenever there is a technological advancement or technology used making production very efficient, the supply increases as production costs decrease. In addition, the price of inputs (PI) such as labor, energy, raw materials, influence supply. When PI increases, sellers are likely to raise P for each unit of output. For IKEA it is known that they have access to relatively cheap raw materials and an increase in PI would not quickly lead to an increase in P because IKEA aims to keep its prices low. Moreover, the number of suppliers (N) in this market might have a small effect on the supply function of IKEA. There are already many suppliers in this market and an increase in N would not lead to a significant decrease in P of IKEA. As stated previously, in creating low prices IKEA is not willing to sacrifice its principles (â€Å"low price but not at any price†). Expectations (Em) concerning the future market condition can directly affect IKEA’s supply in that whenever IKEA believes that the demand for its product will increase in the foreseeable future, IKEA will immediately increase production in anticipation of this increasing demand and therefore future price increases. Lastly, government policies (G) and regulations can have a significant effect on IKEA’s supply. For example environmental regulations could influence decisions IKEA has to take in consideration when switching to a new supplier of raw materials. The general supply function for IKEA would therefore be: Qs = f (P, PR, T, PI, N, Em, G) Assuming that all consumers know all things, about all products, at all times (including knowing the probabilistic outcome of all future events), and therefore always make the best decision regarding purchase. In addition, assuming that Ikea is the leader in a market with a large and endogenous number of firms. Decisions As IKEA is already at the bottom end of the market and operating very efficiently and profitably, the only decisions that they will face would be concerning future investments, advertising, and product features. One of the things that IKEA is now able to do is expanding more to new markets. So far, IKEA has limited its store locations to some of the most heavily populated markets in the countries in which it competes. To continue its growth trends, IKEA may have to begin investigating other (smaller) communities. IKEA has to consider how it will respond if and when a lower priced competitor enters its market. Also, IKEA may want to consider that its product assortment and promotions may not appeal to all cultures. However, for new markets, IKEA should retain its price-image to maintain the brand’s positioning. New cultures mean also that branding has to adapt to popularity in those particular new countries.

Thursday, April 9, 2020

Investigation enzyme activity Essay Example

Investigation: enzyme activity Paper To investigate how the concentration of hydrogen peroxide effects the rate of reaction of an enzyme (catalase) Variables: These factors could effect the rate of reaction on an enzyme:   pH   Concentration   Temperature   Surface Area pH Enzymes function at different pH values. In neutral conditions the amount of oxygen gas given of in an enzyme-catalysed reaction will increase. An enzyme is affected by how much acid or alkali is present. Many enzymes work best in neutral conditions but some prefer acids and some prefer alkalis. This graph shows that the enzyme activity reacts best at pH7 (neutral). Concentration In concentrated solution there are more collisions between each particle, so the reaction occurs more quickly. This graph shows that increasing the concentration increases the enzyme activity. Temperature Reactions go faster as temperature rises. The rate of reaction also increases as the temperature rises, but with enzyme-catalysed reactions the reaction rate starts to decrease when the temperature is above 40 C. This is because enzymes are proteins and their structures start to damage above 40 C. This graph shows that the enzyme activity reacts best at 40? C as the enzyme starts to denature above 40? C Surface Area Reactions can react faster when solids are cut into smaller pieces. This is because there is more surface area which is exposed. The more surface area there is, the more collisions that take place between particles so the reaction rate is much quicker. This graph shows that small pieces react better than bigger pieces. Brief Outline I will test the effects of changing the level of concentration. For this variable I will use three different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide with catalase (enzyme). We will write a custom essay sample on Investigation: enzyme activity specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Investigation: enzyme activity specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Investigation: enzyme activity specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer I will change the concentration whilst keeping the time, concentration of catalase and the volume of hydrogen peroxide constant. I will begin all my tests at a constant temperature (room temperature) and I will repeat each test three times so I can obtain an average result. Background Knowledge: Lock and Key Model A catalyst is a substance which alters the rate of reaction without being used up. Enzymes are the catalysts in biological processes. They are large proteins that speed up chemical reactions. The enzyme forms the active site from small numbers of amino acids. The active site is the location on the enzyme where the substrate collides and the reaction takes place. If the shape of and the substrate do not match exactly then they do not bind. This makes sure that the enzyme does not work with the wrong reaction. Enzymes are not affected by the reaction, so when the products have been released, the enzyme is ready to bind with a new substrate. In my experiment the substrate was the hydrogen peroxide, the enzyme that we used was hydrogen peroxide and the product that was formed was oxygen and water. This can be explained by an equation: Enzyme + Substrate == Product In my experiment this is shown as: Catalase + H202 == H202 + 02 This equation explains how the catalase in our experiment binded with the H202 to break it down and form oxygen. Induced Fit Theory The induced fit theory states that the binding of a substrate to an enzyme causes a change in the shape of the enzyme. The enzyme and the substrate act on each other to affect the making of the active site to the usual complex between the enzyme and its substrate. As a result, this means the enzyme to catalyze a reaction has changed. This shows that enzymes are specific for specific substrates. I can tell that the catalase in my experiment is a suitable enzyme to break down the H202 as it will form oxygen as a product which is unharmful Denaturing Denaturing is the damage to the protein structure of an enzyme. Most enzymes react faster as the temperature increases. Enzymes also react at low temperatures, but when the temperature rises above 40 C their reaction rate start to decrease. This is because enzymes are proteins and their structures get damaged when the temperature rises above 40 C. When the protein is denatured it becomes less effective as a catalyst and soon the enzyme reaction gets slower and then finally it stops. This is why enzymes in washing powders which clean by breaking down grease and other stains, cannot be used with hot water above 40 C Activation Energy In order for a reaction too occur activation energy must be supplied. The activation energy is the energy required to start a chemical reaction. Some elements and compounds react together to bring themselves into contact. For others it is necessary to supply energy in order to start the reaction. This energy is the activation energy. Enzymes such as catalyst work by lowering the activation energy. The Kinetic Theory of Matter Everything is made of moving particles. The main points of the kinetic theory are: All matter is made up of small particles called molecules   The molecules are always vibrating   The higher the temperature, the faster the molecules are moving As the temperatures rises the particles get hotter. They have more energy and move around faster. Solid Liquid Gas Solid In a solid the particles are very close together and have very strong forces between them. Solid particles can only vibrate, this is why they cannot flow. Solids have a fixed shape and a fixed volume Liquid In a liquid the particles are a little further apart. The forces are not very strong. Liquids can flow and change shape but they always have a fixed volume. Gas In a gas the particles are further apart. There are no forces to hold all the particles together. Thy move about very quickly in the space they find. Gases can flow easily and change their shape and their volume depending on the container. Collision Theory The collision theory explains chemical reactions and the way in which the rate of reaction alters when the conditions alter. For a reaction to occur the reactant particles must collide. Only a fraction of the total collisions cause a chemical change. These are called fruitful collisions. The fruitful collisions have sufficient energy (activation energy) to break the existing bonds and to form new bonds, which then form the products of the reaction. Increasing the concentration of the reactants and raising the temperature make more collisions and therefore more fruitful collisions which increases the rate of reaction. All reactions involve two reactants which need collisions between them for particles to proceed. But not all collisions taking place between particles end up with a reaction. This is because in the middle of a reaction, there is a shape of the particle which is difficult to complete. This is called the transition state. The total kinetic energy of reactant molecules must be at least as high as the activation energy to be able to achieve the transition state, so the reaction can proceed. For a reaction to occur there must be successful collisions in which: 1) Particles must collide 2) Particles must have enough energy for the reaction to take place (activation energy). Which means the reaction must be successful If a collision between particles can produce sufficient energy and the particles collide fast enough in the right direction a reaction will take place. But not all collisions result in a reaction. A reaction is speeded up if the number of successful collisions are increased. The particles in a If the collision has If the collision does not liquid move around enough energy a have enough energy no continually reaction takes place reaction occurs The rate of reaction depends on how many successful collisions there are in a given unit of time. Surface area By breaking solids into smaller pieces the surface area is increased, which gives a greater area for collisions to take place. This causes an increase in the rate of reaction. Temperature.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Free Essays on Genocide Of Indigineous Australia

Assimilation and Genocide of Indigenous Australia â€Å"Anyone who closes his eyes to the past is blind to the present. Whoever refuses to remember the inhumanity is prone to risks of re-infection.† Richard Von Weiszaecker, former President of the Federal Republic of Germany Very few people use the word genocide when discussing the strife the Australian indigenous people endured. Almost all historians of the Aboriginal experience, black and white, avoid it. Typically, they write about pacifying, killing, cleansing, excluding, exterminating, starving, poisoning, shooting, beheading, sterilizing, exiling, but they avoid genocide. Could it be that most understand genocide on one level only? For many, and especially Australians, genocide is something of the Germans, Cambodians and Hutus, not the Australians. As for the rest of the world, the experience of the indigenous people of Australia is not as familiar as the images of Auschwitz or the Killing Fields of Cambodia. Clearly, there is no Australian Dachau. In this paper, I will examine the experience of the indigenous people of Australia and the lack of action on behalf of the Australian government. I will also investigate the extent to which the policies and practices of the colonial Australian governmen t in the period 1838 to 1911 can be classified as ‘genocide’, using the United Nations Genocide Convention of 1948 (which Australia ratified in 1951) as a guideline, as well as comparing the indigenous Australian experience under British State control with that of the Jews under Nazi rule during the Holocaust. As Australian federal law stands to this date, it is not illegal to commit domestic genocide in Australia. Although the Australian government signed the international United Nations Genocide Convention Bill in 1948, and ratified it in 1951, since then none of its provisions have been implemented into federal law. What is genocide? Firstly one must understand exact... Free Essays on Genocide Of Indigineous Australia Free Essays on Genocide Of Indigineous Australia Assimilation and Genocide of Indigenous Australia â€Å"Anyone who closes his eyes to the past is blind to the present. Whoever refuses to remember the inhumanity is prone to risks of re-infection.† Richard Von Weiszaecker, former President of the Federal Republic of Germany Very few people use the word genocide when discussing the strife the Australian indigenous people endured. Almost all historians of the Aboriginal experience, black and white, avoid it. Typically, they write about pacifying, killing, cleansing, excluding, exterminating, starving, poisoning, shooting, beheading, sterilizing, exiling, but they avoid genocide. Could it be that most understand genocide on one level only? For many, and especially Australians, genocide is something of the Germans, Cambodians and Hutus, not the Australians. As for the rest of the world, the experience of the indigenous people of Australia is not as familiar as the images of Auschwitz or the Killing Fields of Cambodia. Clearly, there is no Australian Dachau. In this paper, I will examine the experience of the indigenous people of Australia and the lack of action on behalf of the Australian government. I will also investigate the extent to which the policies and practices of the colonial Australian governmen t in the period 1838 to 1911 can be classified as ‘genocide’, using the United Nations Genocide Convention of 1948 (which Australia ratified in 1951) as a guideline, as well as comparing the indigenous Australian experience under British State control with that of the Jews under Nazi rule during the Holocaust. As Australian federal law stands to this date, it is not illegal to commit domestic genocide in Australia. Although the Australian government signed the international United Nations Genocide Convention Bill in 1948, and ratified it in 1951, since then none of its provisions have been implemented into federal law. What is genocide? Firstly one must understand exact...

Saturday, February 22, 2020

Literature review and project specification Research Paper

Literature review and project specification - Research Paper Example More particularly, different studies prove the connection, practically and theoretically, between the employment influences of organizations’ ICT ventures and the effect of ICT dissemination on organizational factors linked to human resources. Berman and colleagues (2009) identify a growth in mandatory competencies during the 1980s in the sector of manufacturing, which is in part ascribed to the arrival of ICT. Bresnahan and Gambardella (2004) claim that employees and organizations have to implement the application of ICT, and provide empirical proof, at the organizational level, about the connection between the characteristics of the labor force and new recruitment practices. They show that organizations that implement innovation linked to ICT, development of new products or services, and restructuring of work, have a tendency to recruit more skilled employees. Ultimately, Landry and colleagues (2003) analyze the evolving nature of work in the period of technological innovati on (i.e. emergence of e-business) and underline major changes in organizational practices, accompanied with a marked transition towards a labor market of adaptable, skilled groups of entrepreneurial workers. It could be that developments in the use of ICT are aggravating the disparity in employability between the rich and poor technology savvies, also referred to as the ‘digital divide’ (Sims 2002). Current investigations highlight the relationships between social inequalities and ICT, their effect on recruitment practices, vocational training, professional competencies, wages, and others. As suggested by Milgrom and Roberts (1990), a business organization can be considered as a structure founded on agreements between each of its parties, comprising its workers. The interdependencies and ties that arise among those parties necessitate prompt information in order to sustain harmony. Furthermore, in competitive, demanding environments, there is an apparent need to initiat e changes in the firm toward more resilient practices, where regular job-training and specialization are means (Swart, Mann, Brown & Price 2005). In this situation, technological innovation simplifies the flow and organization of information, giving a needed assistance to the organization. The adjustment of the organizational recruitment practices is hence facilitated, allowing the formation of intricate organizations in the form of a system, in contrast to the former hierarchies founded on centralization, and reassigning an essential function to its workers through decentralization of the process of decision making (Swart et al. 2005). The arrival of innovative practices, and its relation to recruitment methods, has been broadly studied in the scholarly literature at the organizational level, leading to a number of studies of the notion referred to as ‘skill-biased technical change’ (SBTC) (Lawler, Mohrman, Mark & Neilson 2003). SBTC, more particularly, studies how the arrival of new technologies creates a prejudice towards more competent employees, and brings about a comparative boost in the demand for competent employees, because these competent employees are required in order to exploit the innovations appropriately (Lawler et al. 2003). A transformation in recruitment practices will be inclined in support of competent employees, or skill-inclined, if the new competencies are more expensive to obtain than those needed to work with old system, while